A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency and gender. Learners in the book flood groups had a greater than normal success rate in these examinations. Report. Extensive reading and the development of language skills. Numerous studies show that the amount of reading engaged in correlates with overall reading development 4, and in particular, improvements in reading fluency. In light of research that shows the benefits of extensive reading, it is worth incorporating extensive reading into the reading curriculum. Francis, W. N., & Kuçera, H. (1982). Scrivener, J. Reading is its own reward. Second, it allows learners to follow their interests in choosing what to read and thus increase their motivation for learning. extensive reading and listening: intensive reading or listening tends to be more concentrated, less relaxed, extensive reading take place when st are on their own. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 233-253. Elley, W. B. This study raised the important issue of causality through the use of the LISREL program for analysing the data. Table 1. Students read a lot and read often. Proponents such as All rights reserved. To submit an article or other material to. Language learning background factors and ESL proficiency. Intensive Reading and Extensive Reading are … At this level, this is the equivalent of one graded reader every one to two weeks. Out of class language learning strategies. One of the texts The Three Little Pigs in the Ladybird series seems to have been used in the Fiji book flood study (Elley & Mangubhai, 1981, p. 26). Students read on a wide variety of topics. But the figures of 96.7% and 96.3% are still good coverage figures. Gradman, H., & Hanania, E. (1991). First, reading is essentially an individual activity and therefore learners of different proficiency levels could be learning at their own level without being locked into an inflexible class program. There were some indications that the simplified syntax of the graded readers seemed to encourage the learners to simplify the syntax in their own writing. An important issue considered in this article is the vocabulary load of the texts that learners should read in extensive reading. Seven Extensive Reading websites: When this unfortunate experience occurs, there is too much unfamiliar vocabulary for learners to possibly use context to acquire new vocabulary, little comprehension, and the potential for discouragement from future reading. Maybe you know all of this, and you may relegate this to your learners, but they still seem to choose books that are above their skill level. 0:37. Day, R. R., Omura, C., & Hiramatsu, M. (1991). 2.) (1989). I noticed this in previous classes, and last term I decided to approach extensive reading another way; first with explicit instruction on how to choose a “just right” book followed by a trip to the Central Public Library for immediate practice. Pitts, M., White, H., & Krashen, S. (1989). Reading in a Foreign Language, 5(2), 239-251. Extensive reading offers a lot of benefits (provided you enjoy reading). Browse more videos. What are the benefits of extensive reading? London: Longman. Extensive Reading improves writing skills (Hsu and Lee, 2007; Smith, 2007 cited in Guo, 2012). When learners do read level-appropriate materials for extensive reading, the benefits include: Am I preaching to the choir? Extensive Reading Vs. Elley and Mangubhaiís motivation for choosing books written for young native speakers was probably that these were much more attractively illustrated, and interesting for young readers. Reading in a Foreign Language, 5(1), 155-161. The second language studies (Day, Omura, & Hiramatsu, 1991; Pitts, White, & Krashen, 1989; Saragi, Nation, & Meister, 1978) used tests that were not sensitive to small amounts of learning (see Joe, Nation, & Newton, forthcoming), did not adequately control text difficulty, and generally lacked careful control of the research design. The idea that learners can develop their language knowledge through extensive reading is attractive for several reasons. Laufer's (1989) research suggests that learners need to be familiar with at least 95% of the running words in a text if they want to comprehend and thus perhaps learn from the text. For example, if a learner has a vocabulary of around 1,000 words and is thus expanding her vocabulary at the 1,001-2,000 word level, on average each word at this word level will appear once in every 10,000-15,000 running words (see Table 2). The children in the book flood studies were aged from 6 to 12 years old, and so the content matter of such books was appropriate. Current literature points to the importance and benefits of extensive reading. (1991). Extensive reading vs skill building in an EFL context. Most instructors believe in the merits of extensive reading, also known as pleasure reading. Table 1 presents the vocabulary profile of the three texts showing the percentage of the running words in the 1,000 most frequent words according to West's (1953) General Service List, the words in the second 1,000 most frequent words, the names of characters and places, and the remaining words. One effect of extensive reading that appears with short-term programs is on reading attitudes and reading habits. The figures in column two are from Francis and Kuçera (1982). The Benefits of Extensive Reading: A Pride and Prejudice Variation eBook: Lilian, Lory, Abbott, Jo: Amazon.ca: Kindle Store This can be done in two ways: (a) by doing large amounts of extensive reading at suitable vocabulary levels so that there are repeated opportunities to meet wanted vocabulary, and (b) by complementing the extensive reading program with the direct study of vocabulary. An interesting finding in some of the studies was the improvement made in writing, which appeared most dramatically in the tests given two years after the beginning of the book flood. ELT Journal, 50(2), 150-159. The more extensive reading you do, the more language you are exposed to, allowing you to increase your passive knowledge of vocabulary quite quickly. Frequency analysis of English usage. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Reading in a Foreign Language, 8(2), 689-696. If, for example, the memory of a meeting with a word lasts for one week, then the learner will need to read at least 10,000 words per week (40 pages of 250 words per page) to ensure that there is another meeting with the word before the memory of it is lost. They begin in early childhood and continue through the senior years. It is the easiest way to develop such qualities. the benefits of extensive reading and listening: adquire more language. However, before investing time and money in an extensive reading program, it is necessary to be sure that the learning that occurs from it is not restricted solely to the improvement of reading fluency, even though this in itself is a useful goal. However, too often learners are found to be reading books that are much too difficult and therefore hardly considered pleasurable. The improvements in reading, listening, and oral language were equally striking but not so unexpected, because the "shared book" approach used in one of the groups of classes involved learners in listening, reading, and orally joining in with the reading of a story. Students who read extensively also become more autonomous learners. Several correlational studies looking at the effect of a variety of factors on L2 proficiency have shown the importance of extensive reading. For more information on JALT, please visit the JALT website. Reading books outside one’s specialized area or work is known as extensive reading, and it has great benefits for students. It helped them to engage with reading more and it changed how they read. The control groups in the studies were classes following a syllabus of language items that were presented one by one with substantial amounts of form focused activity. If the small amount of learning of a word is not soon reinforced by another meeting, then that learning will be lost. Note that the names of the characters and places make up a large proportion of the words not in the first 2,000 words. Here are a few of them: More exposure to the language, including style, vocab, and … As learnersí vocabulary grows larger, the new vocabulary is of lower frequency, and therefore the amounts of extensive reading would need to be greater. Green, J. M., & Oxford, R. (1995). The long-term effects of a book flood on childrenís language growth. It is likely that the relationship between extensive reading and language proficiency is changing and complex. Nagy, W. E., Herman, P., & Anderson, R. C. (1985). Analyzing the Extensive Reading Approach: Benefits and Challenges in the Mexican Context Analizando el enfoque de la lectura extensiva: beneficios y retos en el contexto Mexicano Aurora Varona Archer aurovarona@yahoo.com.mx Universidad de Veracruz, Mexico Some scholars have highlighted the benefits of using extensive reading as a way to motivate students to learn a second language (L2). beginning (see Paul Nation's "The Language Learning Benefits of Extensive Reading" in this issue). These correlational studies are supported by Pickard's (1996) survey of the out of class strategies used by a group of German learners of English in Germany, where extensive reading of newspapers, magazines and novels ranked very high on the list of strategies used for learning English. Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading: A replication of the Clockwork Orange study using second language acquirers. There are many benefits of Extensive Reading in language learning. These include gains in reading and writing proficiency, oral skills and vocabulary, an increase in motivation and positive affect. Extensive means covering a substantial area and so, extensive reading refers to that type of reading in which students read and refer to large quantities of material, chosen by themselves. Essentially, vocabulary learning from extensive reading is very fragile. Huang, X., & van Naerssen, M. (1987). Extensive Reading develops communicative competence (Wang 2006 cited in Guo, 2012,). What percentage of textñlexis is essential for comprehension? … A general service list of English words. Success in formal study may make reading more feasible. Since this study only investigated the impact of extensive reading on a single subject, the findings in the study are limited to the perspective of this single learner. (forthcoming). In a study using SRA reading boxes, Robb and Susser (1989) found that extensive reading of SRA material and readers written for American teenagers produced several results superior to a skills focused reading course involving less reading. More, specifically, in what ways is extensive reading helpful for learning a target language? Wellington: NZCER. Success in reading may increase motivation for further study and reading. Moreover, the benefits of intensive reading include enhancing reading comprehension, helping students by understanding sentence structure and developing critical thinking as students have to answer all required questions after reading. Robb, T. N., & Susser, B. Gradman and Hanania found the strongest connection going from individual out of class reading to TOEFL results. How do you encourage extensive reading in and outside the classroom? The books that were used in the experiments were generally "well-illustrated, and used only common-sense controls over the presentation of vocabulary and structures" (Elley & Mangubhai, 1981a, p. 26). The benefits of extensive reading. Purpose of the Study This is a preliminary study, which aimed to investigate EFL students’ opinions on the benefits of the reading While intensive reading requires a high level of focus and deliberate effort, extensive reading is meant to be a fun and pleasurable experience, requiring a low expenditure of mental effort. Gradman and Hanania (1991) found that out of class reading was the most important direct contributor to TOEFL test performance. Extensive Reading by Non-native Speakers of Texts Written for Young Native Speakers. Follow. Word frequency level and the average number of running words needed to meet each word again. Use of reading and other input sources may be the only practical options for out of class language development for some learners. In addition, several of the words outside the lists were repeated several times (huff, puff, chinny, chin). T2G 4V1, Phone: 403-410-3411 Column three converts the figures in column two to a ratio. At the end, I will introduce practical options and possible solutions in terms of implementing extensive reading programs. Tsang, W. (1996). Vocabulary learning and reading. System, 18(1), 31-42. Wodinsky, M., & Nation, P. (1988). TESOL Quarterly, 29(2), 261-297. Comparing the effects of reading and writing on writing performance. The research on extensive reading shows that there is a wide range of learning benefits from such activity. Extensive Reading expands, strengthens and maintains vocabulary growth (Soltani, 2011 cited in Guo, 2012). Third, it provides the opportunity for learning to occur outside the classroom. Experimental studies have shown that not only is there improvement in reading, but that there are improvements in a range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. The lengths in column four are from the Longman Structural Readers Handbook (1976). Elley, W. B., & Mangubhai, F. (1981b). Table 2. Students only read stuff that is interesting or fun for them. Calgary, Alberta, Canada Saragi, T., Nation, I. S. P., & Meister, G. F. (1978). The readers a wide range of learning benefits from such activity, 375-411 as teachers know... More language tesol Quarterly, 24 ( 2 ), 271-275 but the figures of occurrences 1,000,000... Size is needed to meet each word at the 1500 word level 75... When selecting books J. M., & Mangubhai, F. ( 1989 ) the long-term effects a. Learning to occur outside the classroom readers, better writers and,,. Language Journal, 50 ( 2 ), 164-178 one to two weeks can anytime. 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