Water samples from Station 9 (Road Runner Beach) and … The efficiency of suspended solid (colloid) separation from water has been achieved by the application of chemical coagulants such as alum, ferric chloride, and polyelectrolyte. <> In neutral solutions, because of the more coiled structure, the chitosan polymer is able to produce larger and denser flocs. 1 , 2 ). It all depends on the wastewater characteristics, the mixing & dispersion conditions, the phosphorus concentration in your raw water and the expected concentration at the release point & so on… Theoretically, one mole of Al is required to react with one mole of P to … Maier (2004) showed that modeling of alum dosage used in the coagulation process. The theoretical optimum dose produces a zero potential, associated with destabilization of the colloid and allowing subsequent flocculation. In particular, the increasing costs of conventional adsorbents undoubtedly make polysaccharide-based materials one of the most attractive biosorbents for wastewater treatment. Allow the rapid mix at 100 rpm for one minute; Bring down the speed to 40 rpm and allow the show mix for 9 minutes. In general, the natural polymers have efficiency in removal of turbidity of water, comparable or superior to that achieved by metal coagulants, spending a lower dosage. The optimum alum dosage was higher (20 mg/L) for initial turbidity of 1000 NTU which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. The removal of total solids in the present study was up to a maximum of 70 % which correlates with the studies performed by Hasçakir (2003). All samples were collected in sterile plastic containers. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The study showed that the removal efficiencies for turbidity and optimum alum dosage were (93% at 20 mg/l, 92% at 20 mg/l, 85% at 30 mg/l, 88% at 30 mg/l and 89.3% at 30 mg/l) respectively. <>>> Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. 2006). Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. Results should be useful in defining problems encountered in water treatment plants where algae are troublesome. pH was determined using a pH electrode which was calibrated with two standard buffer solutions of pH 4.0 and 9.2. Reagents required: Alum solution (1 ml containing 10 mg of alum) Procedure : 1. These products proved to be not dependent on temperature or pH correction and alkalinity of the water to work efficiently (Theodoro et al. The dosage of Aluminum Sulfate applied for each experiment started at 10 mg/L, with an increase of 0.5 mg/L between each sample. Many samples of water collected from a different number of sources in You cannot say that simply without knowing the characteristics of the water under consideration. Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana, Report of Investigation 68, 1971. In general the reduction in other physico-chemical parameters was very good with alum at only pH 7 but chitin and sago were quite constant and proficient at the varied pH ranges of 6–8. their optimum dosage, and the optimum pH. M. Eng. In coagulation process, rapid mixing is used to spread out the coagulant throughout the turbid water. The samples were transported to the laboratory and all the experiments conducted within duration of 24 h. Temperature was noted at the point of sample collection. within 24 hours. Though PAC is widely used in other countries its use in India for water purification is not appreciable. Turbidity removal efficiency was slightly decreased by increasing alum concentration from 40 to 50 mg L−1, e.g., turbidity removal decreased from 97.1 to 95.7 % at pH 6 (initial turbidity of 100 NTU). See the answer. 2. Coagulation dosage is one of the most important factors that have been considered to determine the optimum condition for the performance of coagulants in coagulation and flocculation. 4 0 obj Hence, the optimized dosages were further optimized for varied mixing speed and time for each stage of coagulation. Turbidity removal efficiencies of the three coagulants. Overdosing can disrupt this phenomenon, therefore, fairly precise control of coagulant dosage should be considered in water treatment plants. This reduction may be attributed to charge reversal and destabilization of colloidal particles due to overdosing as also suggested by Yukselen and Gregory (2004). Furthermore, the cationic corn starch generated better results than those obtained with the cationic synthetic polymer. Their use as coagulants is advantageous because they are efficient in low dosage and, therefore, permit the reduction of sludge volume while their impact on pH and alkalinity is insignificant (Renaut et al. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM COAGULANT DOSE (ALUMINIUM SULPHATE) IN THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OF ATHENS IN GALATSI FACILITIES DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD The students conducted various jar tests with UV254 to determine which chemical combination would produce the best finished water quality results. Moreover, the effect of pH on the coagulation efficiency of chitin is insignificant. Total solids, turbidity, SS, oil & grease, and color parameters were measured throughout the experimental studies by Hasçakir (2003). Recently, the use of environmentally friendly coagulants is widened. Wat Res 33(6):1425–1434, Minke R, Blackwell J (1978) The structure of [alpha]-chitin. Saritha, V., Srinivas, N. & Srikanth Vuppala, N.V. J R Soc Interface 4:999–1030, McConnachie GL, Folkard GK, Mtawali MA, Sutherland JP (1999) field trials of appropriate hydraulic flocculation processes. Colloids Surf, A 147(3):359–364, Sabuindia (2013) http://www.sabuindia.com/sago1.htm (13 April 2013), Theodoro JDP, Lenz GF, Zara RF, Bergamasco R (2013) Coagulants and natural polymers: perspectives for the treatment of water. doi:10.1002/jctb.1056, Zikakis JP (1984) Chitin, chitosan, and related enzymes. The obtained results are in accordance with those obtained by Volk et al. 1 0 obj We varied the alum dose added to the influent stream from 0 mg/L to 45 mg/L in increments of 5 mg/L for an influent turbidity of 50, 75, 100, and 150 NTU. Water Res 34:3247–3257. From the results it is implicit that the reduction of color was nearly 100 % by the sago starch. Optimum coagulant dosage for algal reduction was found to be similar to that for turbidity removal. - 104.131.72.149. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354.00.00033.6, Wang LK, Hung YT, Shammas NK (2005) Physico-chemical treatment processes. Chloride was estimated by argentometric method by titrating against 0.0141 N AgNO3. <> Europ Polym J 45:1332–1348, Renu Y, Garima G (2013) A Review on Indian Sago Starch and its Pharmaceutical Applications. The optimized dosages of coagulants were further examined at various pH conditions to test their efficiency and suitability at a wide range of pH. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Processing, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India), Renaut F, Sancey B, Badot PM, Crini G (2009) Chitosan for coagulation/flocculation processes, an eco-friendly approach. The RSM method was demonstrated to be an appropriate approach for the optimization and was validated … alum dosages from 0 and 200 mg/L. Chemical structure of (starch) amylose and amylopectin (Buleon et al. Glob NEST J 15(4):522–528, Qudsieh M, Yassin I (2006) Synthesis, characterization and application of polyacrylamide grafted sago starch for coagulation and flocculation processes. (Unpublished M.E. Alum dosage must be tailored to meet your specific wastewater characteristics and discharge requirements. Starch content in tapioca ranges from 78.1 to 90.1 % on dry basis. Chemical coagulants are added to water to facilitate bonding among particulates that are widely used to The time of macrofloc formation (flocculation time) is one of the operating parameters that is given great consideration in any water treatment plant that involves coagulation–flocculation operations. J Water Health 3:27–30, Bina B, Mehdinejad MH, Nikaeen M, Movahedian Attar H (2009) Effectiveness of chitosan as natural coagulant aid in treating turbid waters. 3. Coagulation allows by the injection and the scattering of chemical (coagulants) during relatively intense mixing to destabilize naturally occurring particles and macromolecules and/or to precipitate additional particles (Mackenzie and Cornwell 1991). Investigating the influence of mixing speed on trends of turbidity removal by alum chitin and sago, the results have shown that the ability of chitin and sago can be used in wide range of pH and at higher mixing speed conditions. Coagulation efficiency of alum at pH 6 was almost close to that of at pH 7. Analysis and optimization of coagulation and flocculation process, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0262-y. The coagulation flocculation is considered the most important process in water surface treatment. Turbidity was determined using nephelometric turbidimeter which was calibrated at 40NTU standard suspension. The optimum pH range for turbidity removal was found to be 7 for alum and 6–8 for chitin, respectively, resulting in the maximum turbidity removal. The optimum dosage level of the chemicals is governed by the reduction of turbidity. If 50x10^6 Gal/day Of Raw Water Are To Be Treated, Determine The Amount Of Alum Required (kg/yr). PROCEDURE:- Take 2 lit of sample water in all the six jars of the apparatus. The optimum alum dosage was lower (1 g L −1) which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. The goal of the lab was to determine the optimum coagulation dosage for alum and possibly soda ash for this water source. Plast Polym Technol (PAPT) 2(3):55–62, Volk C, Bell K, Ibrahim E, Verges D, Amy G, Lechevaller M (2000) Impact of enhanced and optimized coagulation on removal of organic matter and its biodegradable fraction in drinking water. In the present study "Jar Test" was used. Chlorine dose had a substantial impact on the concentration and characteristics of DOM, and accordingly on the optimum dosage range of alum for effective coagulation of algae cells. Int J Biol Macromol 23:85–112, DI Bernardo AS, DI Bernardo L, Frollini E (2009). See Table #1 below for an example of the increments and dosage: Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 6(4):247–252, Blackburn RS (2004) Natural polysaccharides and their interactions with dye molecules: applications in effluent treatment. Chloride removal efficiencies of the three coagulants, Hardness removal efficiencies of the three coagulants. endobj This finding is in agreement with other studies at optimum pH (Ebeling et al. Oregon Department of Transportation Research Unit, USA, Ma JJ, Li GB, Chen GR, Xu GO, Cai GQ (2001) Enhanced coagulation of surface waters with high organic content by permanganate peroxidation. According to the experiments by Bina et al. Reference: Lin, S. D., R. L. Evans, and D. B. Beuscher. 2009 in their studies taking into account the low dosage of chitosan in these experiments (systematically less than 1 mg/L), the amount of organic carbon introduced would remain low enough (less than 0.8 mg/L) to make its contribution negligible on the coagulation–flocculation performance. Various methods are used to make water safe and attractive to the consumer. Solids were determined gravimetrically. From the investigations steered by various researchers it has been observed that the addition of chitosan contributes to TOC increase in the solution that could affect the coagulation mechanism. J Mol Biol 120:167–181, Muzzarelli RAA (1977) Chitin. The results were in agreement with the report by Yukselen and Gregory 2004. At 100–30 mixing speed turbidity reduction was maximum (53.85–100 %) at pH 6 for all doses of sago comparatively with 80–20 mixing speed which showed maximum reduction (53.85–100 %) at pH 7. The needed dose varies with the pH of the water and the size of the particles. Furthermore, after determining the optimum alum dosage for natural river water, the optimum pH value for color removal was studied by varying the range from 4.5 to 8.5. Determine The Amount Of Natural Alkalinity (mg/L As CaCO3) Consumed. The conductivity was determined using a conductivity cell which was calibrated with standard 0.1 N KCl solution of conductivity 14.12 mmhos at 30 °C. Chitin fibers absorb calcium ions very selectively, forming a chelate. 2009). C. COD REMOVAL W.R.T DOSAGE FOR ALUM The optimum alum dosage is found to be 250 mg/l for the COD removal from the tannery waste water and it is shown in Table IX and Fig.7. Because it is a long-chain polymer with positive charges at natural water pH, it can effectively coagulate natural particulate and colloidal materials, which are negatively charged, through adsorption, charge neutralization, inter-particle bridging as well as hydrophobic flocculation (Li and Kegley 2005). In less than 20 min Shammas NK ( 2005 ) if 50x10^6 Gal/day of Raw water are be... In treating water even with large seasonal variation in turbidity scientific documents at your fingertips, not in. Use of environmentally friendly chemicals should be considered in water surface treatment effluents were used resulting floc is... 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B. Beuscher sorbents: a review composition charge, particle size, shape, and D. B.....