Fescue grows when the soil temperature is above 60° F (15° C). Common turf insects and diseases. If core aeration equipment is not available for rent or purchase, some lawn care companies may offer this service. Step 6. Using a sharp mower is especially important for difficult-to-mow grasses, such as zoysiagrass, bahiagrass, and certain perennial ryegrass cultivars. Large areas planted with bermudagrass or zoysiagrass sprigs require a minimum of 3 to 5 bushels (yards) of sprigs per 1,000 sq ft and 5 to 10 bushels (yards) for extremely fast cover. The air temperature will be between 70-80° F (21-27° C). The fescue grasses, when planted properly, germinate within 10 to 14 days. To help reduce turf loss: Avoid high nitrogen fertilization of cool-season grasses in the late spring or summer … It does not spread To establish a brand new yard: Tall Fescue Plant Sept. 1 – Oct. 15 @ 6 lb of seed / 1000 ft2 A properly sharpened and balanced mower blade also reduces mower vibration, lengthens mower life, and reduces fuel consumption by as much as 22 percent. Note: Seeded cultivars are grasses that do produce viable seed, which can be harvested and sold for use. These characteristics become more evident as the turf matures and the maintenance level increases. Tearing creates many ragged leaf ends that quickly wither and bleach and are easy ports of entry for disease. Applying 0.5 inch of water every three to four days is adequate for most situations. Young seedlings normally emerge and grow best when air temperatures are between 70 and 80 degrees. PDF file. Routine hand raking of thatch is effective in small areas; vertical mowers or power rakes may be used in larger areas. Some lawn alternatives can take a few seasons to become established, so be patient. Shade and grass don’t mix. These products should be used only when a high number of weeds are present and treatment is necessary—not every time the lawn is fertilized. Pruning up the bottom limbs on the maple and elm trees helps. A 1- to 11⁄2-inch layer of mulch conserves soil moisture, prevent erosion, suppress weeds, and help buffer the soil from air temperature fluctuations. The best recommendation for managing mushrooms is to mow them. Figure 9–19. As the seedlings grow and root, water less often but for longer periods, working up to the recommended fall irrigation rate of 1⁄4 to 1⁄2 inch water per week (via rainfall or irrigation). Water the area to enhance settling. Chatham County Center Use a device that removes soil cores. Although fall is considered the best time to plant fescue seed, planting in spring is also possible. Writer sparks backlash for calling Jill Biden 'kiddo' These low, slow-growing cultivars cannot be planted from seed and must be planted vegetatively (sod, stolon, plug, or sprig). Typically this disease is most active in spring and fall and can produce copious amounts of spores. Apply half the seed in one direction and the other half moving at right angles to the first pass (Figure 9–14). S. but reached a high of 798164 tons of P 2O 5 in 1985 (Figure 1). If a taller, more meadow-like look, is preferred, leave sedge unmowed. In small bare spots, loosen the top 4 to 6 inches of the soil with a rake, hoe, or shovel. Annual ryegrass has been used by some homeowners to provide winter color for bermudagrass lawns. Are there any significant water issues? Most finely textured, high-quality turf-type bermudagrasses are planted using sod, sprigs, or plugs. Rototill the recommended amount of fertilizer and lime, indicated by soil test results, or apply lime at 75 pounds per 1,000 sq ft and 10-10-10 fertilizer at 20 pounds per 1,000 sq ft to the area to be sprigged. Cool-season grasses are best seeded in early fall, but fair results may be obtained from seeding in early spring (mid-February to late March in the piedmont). Annual ryegrass (Figure 9–6) is used only when a temporary turf cover is needed. If clippings are heavy enough to hold the grass down or shade it, catch them or rake and remove them. Come see us and we will help you out! CC BY-NC - 4.0. FAX: (919) 542-8246, We have several topic based e-mail newsletters that are sent out periodically when we have new information to share. A 100 lb bag of this fertilizer contains 10 lbs of nitrogen, 10 lbs of phosphorus, and 10 lbs of potassium. Cultivar names should be listed on the seed bag label. Removing weeds by hand as they appear, and before they flower and set seed, can be an effective technique for a small area. Carpetgrass requires only 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft annually. When mixed with tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass tends to dominate where the soil is limed, the turf is adequately fertilized, and the grass is kept mowed fairly short. It is difficult to maintain vibrant green color in cool-season grasses during the summer. Many weeds in a lawn can be frustrating to a homeowner, but having some tolerance for weeds keeps chemical use to a minimum. Required light conditions (sun, shade, part sun), Required soil conditions (moist or dry, clayey or sandy, acidic or neutral), Ornamental features (flowers, fruit, fragrance, fall color, foliage size and shape), Cost (plugs are less expensive in larger quantities than containerized plants), Growth rate (how fast plants achieve the desired coverage). Tall Fescue Post-emergence herbicides are used for actively growing weeds that have emerged from the soil. By Chris Gabriel | 2017-06-02T15:24:14-04:00 September 5th, 2014 | Blogs & Articles, Lawn and Garden, Outdoor Living | Comments Off on Lawn Care Calendar for Fescue and Fescue Hybrids in Charlotte, NC. Whether you are establishing a new lawn or renovating an existing one, deciding which type of grass to plant is the first step. Think about how the lawn will be accessed for mowing and fertilizing. The type of grass and the planting method selected determines the best time of year to plant. Allow them to fall into the turf where they decay and release nutrients. The percentages never add up to 100% because the remainder of the bag is a mixture of secondary nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, micronutrients, and fillers such as sand or granular limestone. CC BY-NC-ND - 2.0, Eunice Cruz Ikalawa, Flickr Subscribe to the Chatham Gardener email list to receive timely updates on sustainable lawn, garden, and landscape care for the central NC Piedmont. All of these grasses are used across much of the state, although some species lend themselves more to certain regions. Tips For Success: Seeding Cool Season Turfgrasses. Characteristics of principal lawn grasses grown in North Carolina. Once fully established, it rarely needs irrigation to survive in North Carolina. Plant Depth Mountains (above 2500 ft. elevation)* See footnote for below 2500 ft. Piedmont and Tidewater Crop Seeding Coastal Plain** Rate (lb./acre) B:broadcast D:drill(4-to 9ﬂ row) R:row (30+inches) PLS:pure live seeds (inches) Best Dates Possible Dates Best Dates Possible Dates Best Dates Possible Dates PERENNIAL GRASSES Bahiagrass B:15-25;D:10-20 … - ‰ Not adapted Not well … These are some of the major causes of turf deterioration: The problems that caused the lawn to deteriorate must be corrected before the renovation process begins. The application of high rates or repeated low rates of nitrogen to cool-season grasses in the spring or summer greatly increases the severity of brown patch. Figure 9–24. Send Explanation. There is no one best grass to plant in any area of North Carolina. Frequent mowing also stops weeds from flowering and going to seed. Although a lot of spores are produced, rust is rarely more than a cosmetic issue. Cool-season grass seeds grow best if planted from mid-August to mid-October, while warm-season grass seeds are best planted from March through July. TifGrand
Lightly cover the seed by hand raking or dragging with a mat or span of chain-link fence. The proper mowing heights are presented in. Read our As turfgrass grows, it produces new roots, leaves, and stems. Step 2. To help control weeds that may have gone to seed in the lawn use a pre-emergence herbicide. 1. The fescue grasses, when planted properly, germinate within 10 to 14 days. Avoid stretching sod. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. White clover (Trifolium repens), makes an excellent ground cover and pollinator plant. Selecting ground covers appropriate to the site conditions generally translates to well-adapted, healthy plants with minimal pest or disease problems. On the leaves? Few ground cover shrubs require pruning, though some gardeners employ it as a technique for stimulating new growth or neatening the appearance of a plant grouping. Get professional advice about the type of drain and installation. The percentages are always noted in the following order: Make sure the soil is moist (but not overly wet) before laying sod. Place plantings 1 foot apart and lightly mulch between them to discourage weeds until the ground cover is filled in. 50 divided by 16 equals 3.13 lbs of fertilizer. Daniels, Stevie, ed. If animals and children will frequently use the area, an alternative plant may be more suitable. It can be seeded by itself or mixed with Kentucky bluegrass or fine fescue, or both, particularly where shade is a concern. Describe the age and history of plant. Letting the seeds drop after flowering helps fill in any spaces and thickens the planting. The turfgrass in this front yard was underused (above). It is mowed two times a week during the growing season with a push mower, and the mower is set to remove only a third of the blade of grass so grass blades are more than 1 inch tall after mowing. Working hand-in-hand with our partners at N.C. A&T and 101 local governments, we conduct groundbreaking research that addresses real-world issues in communities across the state. Fall is the ideal time to plan to re-seed your existing tall fescue lawn. Be sure the timing of fertilization corresponds with the recommendations on the maintenance calendar for your particular turf. This process includes the following steps: Reduce competition. Tall fescue thrives in sun or medium shade in the mountains and piedmont. Thatch may need to be removed every two to three years, but care should be taken because the stems can easily be torn from the ground, leaving bare spots. When can I plant a fescue lawn? To reduce the danger of spreading disease and injuring the turf, mow when the soil and plants are dry. Irrigation helps maintain color, but may also increase the risk of disease. Carpetgrass is a slow and low-growing, stoloniferous, medium-green, coarsely textured lawngrass (Figure 9–11). This is especially important when planting centipedegrass. CC BY-NC - 4.0. Once established, paying close attention to adequate moisture, proper fertilization, and frequent mowing (at no more than 50 percent of the height of the grass blades) keeps the turfgrass in top condition. It should be mowed when it attains 1 inch in height and no higher than 2 inches. Because annual ryegrass is an annual, it must be reseeded each fall. Check the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual for recommendations. Dig planting holes wider than the size of the root ball. This evergreen ground cover features dark green strappy leaves and grows well in North Carolina. Suite 400 Pittsboro, NC 27312 St. Augustinegrass is a fast-growing, stoloniferous turfgrass best adapted to the North Carolina coastal plain (Figure 9–10). Every three to four weeks during the growing season, add 0.5 to 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft until the plants have completely covered the desired lawn area. CC BY-NC - 4.0, Kirill Ignatyev, Flickr Zoysiagrass was once limited to two cultivars: Meyer and the finer textured Emerald. The frequency of mowing is governed by the desired grass height and by the amount of growth, which depends on temperature, fertility, moisture conditions, season, and the natural growth rate of the grass. K2O Potassium to enhance pest and environmental stress tolerance. Use a mower with a sharp blade. A blue certified tag indicates that the seed or plants have met certain standards to assure high quality and low levels of contaminants. There are many sedums, so look for a creeping variety that reaches only about 4 inches tall (Figure 9–33). With each piece of information you add, the list of potential disease on the right shrinks. Most turfgrasses can withstand three to six weeks (or longer) without rainwater or irrigation and exhibit minimal or no damage, depending on the situation. Some lawn care and landscape companies offer coring services if rental equipment is not available. Start sodding from a straight edge and butt strips together in a bricklike pattern. Use cans or a rain gauge to determine how much water is being delivered in a certain period of time. Prune spring-flowering plants after they bloom and summer- and fall-flowering plants in early spring before new flower buds form. commitment to diversity. A list of producers growing certified sod, and the varieties they carry, can be found on the NCCIA website. Most soils in North Carolina are acidic and just right for centipedegrass, which requires a pH close to 5.5. One way to be sure a seed or planting material is true to type, free of noxious weed seed, and contains low levels of other crop seed is to purchase certified seed or sod. L.K. Tall fescue is best adapted to the North Carolina mountains and piedmont but can be successfully maintained on the heavy silt loams in the coastal plain (Figure 9–2). 2. commitment to diversity. This year the area has grown and is now about 4 feet in diameter (Figure 9–36). Brooklyn, New York: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 2001. Grown for blue-green foliage; can be used as a ground cover or accent plant; semi-evergreen; tends to die out when grown in heavy, poorly drained soil; clumps has a tendency to die and require division every two to three years and are either replaced or replanted. I have tips on planting a new lawn or an existing lawn, whether with seed or sod. CC BY-NC-ND - 2.0. By the second year in the ground, sedums become dense enough to out-compete weeds. Study the chart to help select the appropriate grass for the site and the intended use of the lawn. Visit the TurfFiles website for more information on turf selection, care, and pest management. In most instances, this may amount to biweekly and weekly mowing. It is very important that tall fescue be maintained at the proper mowing height to allow it to mature before winter and to minimize weed incidence. N. Yoder, Flickr The spot appears in the heat of the summer; it appeared last year and is bigger this year. Figure 9–14. Lucy Bradley Bare spots larger than 4 inches in diameter should be replanted. It flowers best in full sun. Left: The front yard "before". CC BY - 2.0, Patrick Standish, Flickr Compaction also negatively affects turfgrass causing weeds to more easily establish themselves. Warm-season grasses are usually seeded or planted as a single variety (monoculture) rather than in blends and mixtures. Thatch removal can be performed on our warm-season grasses in late winter when they are dormant, or in the spring after green-up when the grasses are actively growing. It is best used on roadsides where appearance is not a concern and low maintenance is the priority. You should plant tall fescue seed in the fall, and it may require annual reseeding. There are so many factors to consider; everything from drainage, sunshine, to the terrain can be a potential determinant for what to fill your yard with and where. And even if all of the grass dies, it prevents erosion and weeds. Site and soil preparation, including fertilization, are especially important. For best results and to make the most of your investment, select cultivars recommended on the Turffiles website. These new cultivars, including El Toro, Crowne, Palisades, Empire, and Jamur, are coarser in texture (similar to newer tall fescues) and are quicker to establish and recover from injury. Cooperative Extension. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass exhibit a bunch-type growth habit and are incapable of spreading. The NC Crop Improvement Association (NCCIA) offers a list of certified sod producers on its website. Typically mushrooms appear after a rain when the weather is warm. Example: a 50 lb bag of 16-4-12 has 8 lbs of N, 2 lbs of P and 6 lbs of K. Bag Weight x % of Nutrients = lbs of Nutrients, Example: a 4 lb bag of 8-4-0 has about 5 oz* of N, 2.5 oz of P, and zero K. *Changing the weight to the equivalent in ounces makes it easier to work with bags containing smaller amounts. CC BY - 2.0, Forest and Kim Starr, Flickr Give the grass a good start with a properly prepared seedbed. Any holes or bare spots have to be seeded to fill in bare … CC BY-NC-SA - 2.0. On the aboveground portions of the grass, some leaves are all brown and some have spots. Dull mower blades reduce lawn quality by tearing instead of cleanly cutting the grass. Set the rotary or reel mower at the lowest setting, mow, and collect the clippings. Apply lime if suggested.Do not applymore than 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet in the spring. How to Plant Tall Fescue Grass Seed Starting your tall fescue lawn with The Rebels ® Brand premium seed gives you complete control to create a lawn that perfectly suits your needs. Seed fine fescue at 1.5 pounds per 1,000 square feet when mixed with either tall fescue or Kentucky bluegrass. Liriope, a little taller than mondo grass, is a lawn alternative. I give 2 thumbs up for Bermuda in the Charlotte are. To learn more about common lawn problems see Appendix C, "Diagnostic Tables.". September – October is the BEST time to plant a fescue lawn but March -April is also a possibility. Letting the grass go dormant prevents it from becoming stressed by drought conditions. Use a knife or sharp spade for trimming to fit irregularly shaped areas. Note that spike aeration is not recommended, as this method of aeration only further compacts the soil. Tall Fescue fertilization requires 3-5 Pounds of Nitrogen per year in your applications. Leonora Enking, Flickr Use Extension Search to find research based information from Cooperative Extension systems across the U.S. Visit your local Cooperative Extension office to learn more about gardening and landscape care. Dry, compacted soils, obstructions such as rocks and trees, and excessive slopes may limit the usefulness of a slit seeder. What separates NC State University from other schools? The cleanest cut and best mowing are obtained when the mower blades are sharp. Avoid terraces, steep grades, poorly drained areas, and heavily shaded spots. Higher seeding rates can result in weak, thin stands that are more susceptible to disease and high temperature stress. They are drought tolerant and do not need fertilizing. These older cultivars can become thatchy —puffy due to an accumulation of dead, dying, decaying plant residue at the soil surface. Perennial weeds may need to be managed with a nonselective herbicide. How do I control excessive thatch build-up in my lawn? Application of a slow-release fertilizer once or twice annually encourages good plant coverage. Prepare a good seedbed. Re-seeding will sometimes need to take place in … Looking for a specific person? Dormant lawns in summer should receive about ½ inch of water every 3 weeks to prevent crown dehydration and plant death. If you buy a tall fescue blend, try to find one with at least one of the cultivars from the list of recommended cultivars. CC BY - 2.0, Slgckgc, Flickr Each grass has its merits and disadvantages. After the third mowing, water to a depth of 6 inches. The site may not look or function as expected. A cultipacker or roller ensures the seeds have good soil contact to help with germination rates. The closer the spacing, the faster the lawn will become established (Figure 9–15). The grass will continue to decline without intervention. Incorporate seed and fertilizer into the top 1/8-inch of soil by lightly pulling a leaf rake over loosened soil or running a vertical mower over areas that were just power raked and cored. Place plugs on either 6-inch or 12-inch centers, depending on the desired establishment speed. These range from organic fertilizers, nematodes or bacteria that attack caterpillars, to traps, and nontoxic repellents. A sample could be sent to a diagnostic lab to determine if a disease may be causing the problem. Seed is available for Compadre and Zenith. This brings soil to the surface with minimal disruption and create an environment for good seed-to-soil contact. Describe the problem: Examine both the healthy and damaged leaves carefully. Table 9–5. I have bermuda at one home, and fescue at the other. Lawn renovation refers to any procedure beyond normal maintenance (short of soil modification) required to upgrade an existing lawn. Apply half the fertilizer in one direction and the other half moving at right angles to the first pass to ensure uniform coverage (Figure 9–14). The application of high rates or repeated low rates of nitrogen to cool-season grasses in the spring or summer greatly increases the severity of brown patch (Rhizoctonia spp. Before you plant fescue seed, you want to do a bit of preparation to your lawn. To help reduce turf loss, avoid high nitrogen fertilization of cool-season grasses in the late spring or summer and of warm-season grasses in the fall or winter. Penick, Pam. But, since many folks including my HOA like attractive turfgrass we all plant it. It tolerates moderate traffic and persists with minimum care. Some of the leaf blades are all brown, and some have irregular brown spots with a dark halo around them (Figure 9–37). It requires little fertilizer once established (0.5 to 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft per year) and infrequent mowing. It will not perform well in full sun in the coastal plain, especially if the soil is sandy. Attempts to upgrade existing lawns when conditions are not conducive to good growth are difficult at best. For sandy soils, typical to the North Carolina coastal plain and sandhills, fertilizer rates should be increased by 20 percent. There is no evidence of insect feeding. Lawns can be aerated once a year, especially under heavy use conditions and with heavy clay soils. North Carolina Extension Gardener Handbook. Fine fescues include creeping red, chewings, and hard fescue. Important information to look for on the seed bag label includes: Before seeding, core aerification is recommended to reduce soil compaction. It is sometimes found in inexpensive commercial seed mixtures, and those should be avoided. Dwarf mondo grass grows to just 2 inches tall and more closely resembles a turfgrass lawn. 7. Fine fescues generally do well in more natural areas with infrequent mowing. Apply a starter-type fertilizer (one that is high in phosphorus) based on the type of grass and the planting method. The soil temperatures are still warm for the seed to easily germinate and thrive in the cool season to come. CC BY-NC-ND - 2.0, Perez, Flickr Identify the onset of the Problem: When did you notice this problem? Carefully read and follow directions and precautions on the herbicide labels. Kathleen Moore Removing grass by using a sod cutter. September is also a good time to plant fescue. Wooly thyme (Thymus pseudolanguinosis) Turkish Speedwell (Veronica liwanensis) are planted between the stones and withstand foot traffic very well. Actually, thatch is made up of roots, stems, and the lower portions of leaves that are below the mower blade. Turfgrass that is stressed from drought or overwatering, burned from too much fertilizer, or stressed from scalping is much more likely to struggle with weed populations. Try the Chatham County Center Staff Directory, or the Full Directory for N.C. Figure 9–26. Fertilizing around the first of September helps fescue take advantage of the good growing conditions. Weeds occur in any lawn, but a thriving turfgrass lawn naturally crowds out most weeds. Centipedegrass is a slow-growing, stoloniferous, apple-green, coarsely leaved turfgrass that is best used as a low maintenance, general purpose turf (Figure 9–9). On the other hand, if a plant is stressed by failure to have its requirements met, it may experience increased susceptibility to pests and disease. After the sod has been placed, roll the lawn to ensure good sod-to-soil contact. The fine texture of moss balances beautifully with nearby flowering perennials and evergreens. 1 If you plant late, expect lower germination rates and less hardy root establishment. Chop up the cores, and, if possible, distribute them by dragging with a span of chain-link fence or a mat. This is because they are either sterile grasses that do not produce viable seed or they may produce seed that does not retain characteristics true to the cultivar. A typical tall fescue seeding rate is 5 to 6 pounds of seed per 1000 square feet. Unlike warm-season grasses, cool-season grasses remain green throughout most of the winter. Kirill Ignatyev, Flickr Apply fertilizer and lime before planting based on soil test results. Cool-season grasses include: Tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, Perennial ryegrass, Fine fescue. Warm-season grasses should not be seeded in the fall as there is inadequate time for maturity before the first expected frost. The ideal climate occurs in spring before the temperature starts to climb for summer. Core in several directions, allow plugs to dry, and then pulverize them with a mower, dethatcher, or by dragging a span of weighted down chain-link fence behind a tractor or lawn mower. 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